L. Mendel Rivers papers
The papers of L. Mendel Rivers span the years of 1940 to 1962, with the bulk of the material concentrated in the years 1957 to 1962. The collection is composed primarily of correspondence, memoranda, and printed matter relating to Rivers' legislative work as a member of Congress from the first district of South Carolina and as a powerful member of the House Committee on Armed Services. The papers are supplemented by speeches, political files, and family and personal correspondence.
Materials primarily relate to Rivers' service in Congress from 1955 to 1962 with topics including the Cold War, Cuban Missile Crisis, Bay of Pigs invasion, Civil Rights, public school desegregation, and the United States Armed Services and defense programs. Also included are committee files concerning Rivers' service as Chairman of the House Committee on Armed Services and his service on the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee.
Reflected in the Rivers collection is the congressman's deep concern for the armed services and security of the United States. His dedication to ensuring the well-being of military personnel and their families and his commitment to strengthen the arsenals of the armed forces are the most significant themes found throughout his papers. The Collection also documents Rivers' service to his constituents. Scattered throughout the various series are materials relating to the strength of Charleston's economy due to his success in bringing many military-related industries to the first district.
- Majority of material found within 1957-1962
Language of Material
Materials in English
This collection is open for research.
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Lucius Mendel Rivers was born in 1905 just west of Charleston, South Carolina, in the small town of Gumville. His father, Lucius Rivers was a cotton farmer who ran a turpentine mill. When Mendel was ten years old his father died suddenly of pneumonia. The senior Rivers' death sent the family's fortunes into decline. Eventually, the bank foreclosed on the farm, and forced the Rivers' clan to sell most of its possessions. Rivers' mother, Henrietta, used what money was left over from the sale to move the family to the north area of Charleston County where she purchased a two-story home near Montague Avenue. Despite having a comfortable home, the family was far from well off financially. Young Mendel rose at 4:00 A.M. to milk cows and deliver newspapers before riding a trolley to Charleston to attend school. His mother also took in boarders to improve the family's financial situation.
Rivers graduated from High School in 1926. He was admitted to the College of Charleston with the intention of becoming a lawyer. He left the college after three years to attend the law school at the University of South Carolina. Rivers passed the South Carolina bar exam in 1932, and entered a law practice with Joseph Fromberg.
Shortly after beginning his law practice, Rivers ran for a seat in the South Carolina General Assembly. Although his initial attempt at electoral success failed, Rivers ran again a year later when a special election was held to fill a vacant seat in the Charleston County delegation to the State House of Representatives. In his second election, Rivers campaigned under the slogan: "Give the Northern End of the County Representation." This time, Rivers won. He was re-elected in 1934 and won the Democratic Primary in 1936.
Before Rivers could defend his seat in the general election of 1936, he was offered a job as an assistant to the Attorney General of the United States. The offer was made at the behest of Thomas McMillan, the congressman from South Carolina's First Congressional District, who viewed Rivers as a possible rival for his congressional seat, and sought to make an ally out of Rivers before they became competitors. Whether or not he was aware of the congressman's motives, Rivers accepted the offer, which took him first to Washington, D.C., then to Louisiana, and, finally, to Georgia to work for the federal government.
In 1938, Rivers returned to Charleston to help McMillan stave off a difficult challenge for the Democratic nomination from Russell McGowan. Charleston Mayor Burnet R. Maybank, who was running for governor, and Henry Lockwood, who was the favorite to replace Maybank as the city's mayor, endorsed McGowan. Thanks to a strong showing in the rural areas of the First Congressional District, McMillan narrowly won the nomination. Just two days after the primary, Rivers and Margaret Middleton were married at Charleston's historic St. Michael's Episcopal Church. Several months later, Tom McMillan died unexpectedly leaving his wife to fill his congressional seat until the next election.
In February of 1940, Rivers resigned from his job with the Justice Department and returned to Charleston to "practice law." Rivers' return to the city prompted the Charleston News and Courier to speculate that he intended to seek McMillan's old congressional seat.
The political establishment endorsed Alfred H. "Fritz" von Kolnitz. Von Kolnitz was a successful businessman and a former professional baseball player and World War I fighter pilot. Despite his credentials, von Kolnitz was not a gifted speaker. He lacked Rivers' flair for impromptu speeches. He did, however, have a solid backing in the city of Charleston. Rivers' strategy was to keep the returns in Charleston close and bank on strong support from the surrounding areas. The campaign strategy proved successful. Rivers lost Charleston County, but he overwhelmingly defeated von Kolnitz in the rural areas of the district.
When he entered the United States House of Representatives, Rivers was assigned to the Naval Affairs Committee, which was merged with the Military Affairs Committee to form the Armed Services Committee after World War II. Rivers' remained on the Armed Services Committee throughout his career. In 1965, he was named Chairman of the committee. He served in that capacity until his death in 1970.
Rivers was instrumental in several aspects of the administrative policy of the Vietnam War. He helped define the terms of the draft, and he aided in securing funding for military activities. He is generally credited with helping to build the "nuclear navy" and with supporting the development of the "C5-A" aircraft. Rivers acquired a reputation as a defender of the military and as a "war hawk." He prided himself on his reputation as a champion of the ordinary service man.
Rivers was also active in the fight to save segregation. He was a strident defender of the racial status quo. In 1948, he was the first South Carolina Congressman to declare himself a "Dixiecrat" and openly support J. Strom Thurmond's candidacy for the presidency. He bolted the Democratic Party again in 1952 when he supported Dwight D. Eisenhower in the presidential election. Rivers felt that the Democratic Party had adopted a "liberal" civil rights platform in the contest. Although he publicly supported the Democratic Party for the remainder of his career, numerous sources charged that he had secretly aided George Wallace's "independent" campaign for president in 1968. Also, in a 1956 questionnaire, Rivers was the only South Carolina congressman to declare himself a member of the White Citizens' Council.
Throughout his near three decades in Congress, Rivers was never seriously challenged in either the Democratic Primary or the general election. He was instrumental in the development of numerous defense industries in his district, especially the tremendous growth of the Charleston Naval Base. Rivers also fought to make the College of Charleston a state institution in the late 1960s.
21.7 linear feet (52 document boxes)
Correspondence, speeches, memoranda, legislative files, political files, and committee files of L. Mendel Rivers (1905-1970), Democratic United States Representative from South Carolina's 1st Congressional District from 1941 to 1970. Materials primarily relate to Rivers' service in Congress from 1955 to 1962 with topics including the Cold War, Cuban Missile Crisis, Bay of Pigs invasion, Civil Rights, public school desegregation, and the United States Armed Services and defense programs. Also included are committee files concerning Rivers' service as Chairman of the House Committee on Armed Services and his service on the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee.
- Family correspondence, 1955-1960
- Personal files, 1956-1962
- General correspondence, 1957-1962
- Legislative files, 1940-1962
- Committee files, 1954-1962
- Political files, 1950-1962
Originally deposited in the Library of Congress by L. Mendel Rivers' widow Mrs. Margaret Middleton Rivers [Alvin H. Hughey] in 1980 along with a folder of 19 items of family correspondence deposited by his daughter Margaret Rivers Eastman. In 2002, at the request of Miss Eastman, the papers were transferred from the Library of Congress to the College of Charleston.
Materials were donated in 2002 by Margaret Rivers Eastman.
Originally processed by Kathleen M. Dondanville with the assistance of Patrick M. Kerwin, 1992. Additional description added by Matthew Kruse, September 2014.
- Charleston (S.C.)
- Civil rights -- United States
- Cold War
- Cuba -- History -- Invasion, 1961
- Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
- Fisheries -- United States
- Legislators -- United States
- Merchant mariners -- United States
- School integration -- United States
- South Carolina -- Politics and government -- 20th century
- United States -- Armed Forces
- United States -- Politics and government -- 20th century
- United States. Congress. House
- United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services
- United States. Congress. House. Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries
- World politics -- 1945-1989
- bills (legislative records)
- clippings (information artifacts)
- congressional committee records
- congressional committee reports
- legislative records
- personal correspondence
- Inventory of the L. Mendel Rivers Papers, 1940-1962
- Processed by: Kathleen M. Dondanville, Patrick M. Kerwin, and Matthew Kruse; machine-readable finding aid created by: Matthew Kruse
- Description rules
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Funding from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) supported the processing of this collection and encoding of the finding aid.