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Various Collections

 Record Group
Identifier: AMN 9000

Collection Overview

Each small collection is considered a series.

1. Hicks and Steele Family Papers: The Hicks family, originally from Savannah, Georgia and New York, are an African-American family in Charleston, South Carolina. John O. Hicks married Sadie Steele and had one son, J. Maurice Hicks, father of Janet Hicks.

The Steele family, originally from Missouri, are decedents of the Randolph family who left Charleston, South Carolina in 1800 and relocated to Jersey City, New Jersey.

The collection includes materials related to Hicks and Steele family members, gathered by Janet Hicks. Materials include a marriage certificate for Robert A. Steele and Selina L. Spearing; a Steele family tree; and photographs of Sadie Steele Hicks, J. Maurice Hicks, and others.

2. Shaw School: The Shaw Memorial School is named after Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, commander of the Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts Regiment of black troops during the Civil War. Upon his death at Fort Wagner near Charleston harbor, Shaw's friends and family raised funds to construct a school. With additional funds from the New England Freedman's Aid Society and other Northern philanthropists, the Shaw Memorial School opened its doors in 1865. The students were predominantly black, and classes were taught largely by Northern missionaries.

When the New England Freedman's Aid Society dissolved in 1874, the Charleston board of school commissioners agreed to oversee the school for a period of 10 years, under the provision that the schoolhouse would be maintained for children of color and that only black teachers were to be used. After a satisfactory ten-year period, the school's property was transferred to the Charleston city school board in 1884, and the school continued to run a curriculum for students aged six to fifteen.

In 1938, the Shaw Memorial School ceased to be an education institution. The building, located at 22 Mary Street, served a number of other purposes during the 20th century and was placed on the National Register in 1973.

The original building has since been demolished and replaced by a Boys and Girls Club of America.

This collection contains attendance certificates of former Shaw School students, 1882-1889, as well as clippings and correspondence relating to the property after it ceased to hold classes, 1938-1990.

3. Fredricka Jenkins-Andrews Papers: Fredricka Jenkins was born January 4, 1914, in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina. The eldest of seven children, she grew up in Charleston and graduated from the Avery Normal Institute in 1931 with a first place honor in Pedagogy and class rank of Salutatorian. She immediately began teaching in Charleston County public schools.

In 1946, Fredricka Jenkins married Richard N. Andrews and moved to Buffalo, New York. Initially, she did not teach there, but participated in a number of community organizations until she enrolled at Buffalo State College. There, she earned a Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education in 1963, and numerous academic awards. She continued her education there and in 1969 received a Master of Science degree in Elementary Education with permanent Certification in Elementary Supervision. From September 1963 to June 1979, she taught at School #53 in the Buffalo Public School System. For her teaching performance, Jenkins-Andrews received an Oustanding Teachers of America award in 1972 and was nominated for National Teacher of the Year in 1974.

Fredricka Jenkins-Andrews retired from the Buffalo Public School System in 1979. She died in 2010.

The collection contains materials related to Fredricka Jenkins-Andrews' teaching career. Includes correspondence regarding award nominations, 1972-1973; materials related to her retirement ceremony and other professional recognition; and clippings regarding her career, post-retirement teaching activities, and community involvement.

4. Francis Frank Sturken: Francis Frank Sturcken graduated from the College of Charleston in 1951. That year, he wrote an essay denouncing segregation entitled The Liquid South for the College's annual Bingham Oratorical Contest and won the contest for the third consecutive year. In this piece, Sturcken wrote that segregation laws were based upon the lie that the Negro can be segregated and not discriminated against.... In a complex society such as ours, that is, of course, impossible. You can have no segregation without discrimination.

The essay piqued the interest of Judge Julius Waties Waring, who distributed it to his associates and promoted its publication in various newspapers throughout the country, although it received minimal local attention.

This collection contains materials related to Frank Sturcken's essay, The Liquid South. Includes copies of the essay, a memoir, correspondence in reaction to the essay, and clippings. Much of the material contains personal annotations.

5. Augustus Holt Collection on Charleston Little League: In 1954, a group of African Americans from Charleston, South Carolina organized a baseball league for the youth of their community. In 1955, the organization became known as the Cannon Street YMCA Little League, hosting four teams. It was the first and only all-black league in South Carolina sanctioned by the National Little League Program.

In 1955, the Cannon Street YMCA Little League selected an all-star team from among its four teams. Charleston teams refused to play the all-black Cannon Street All-Stars, leaving the team as city champions by default. The Cannon Street All-Stars advanced to the state Little League tournament; in protest, South Carolina's 61 all-white Little League teams withdrew from the state tournament. Because of the white teams' refusal to participate in an integrated tournament, the Cannon Street All-Stars again won by default. Then, the National Little League president Peter J. McGovern ruled the team out of regional and national play, however, effectively barring the Cannon Street team from further competition. Charleston's African Americans raised funds to send the Cannon Street YMCA state champions to the national finals as spectators.

In response to integrated Little League baseball, all-white Dixie Youth baseball began in 1955 in Charleston. The new league was initially called Little Boys Baseball, but the name later changed after a lawsuit by the Little League Baseball, Inc., over the term Little. The Dixie Youth League later integrated.

In the 1990s, Augustus Holt, an African American shipyard worker, volunteered as a baseball coach for the Dixie Youth League, but Holt and other parents declared they were offended by the Confederate battle flag on the uniform and the historic reasons for Dixie Youth's founding. In 1993, Holt also conflicted with the city's recreation director over the second-place trophy, which was eventually awarded to Holt's team. In 1994, Augustus Holt succeeded in bringing Little League back to Charleston. Holt became president of the Charleston American Little League, overseeing the sports program and organizing a celebration of the fortieth anniversary of the Cannon Street YMCA All-Stars baseball team.

Augustus J. Holt collected various materials regarding Charleston, South Carolina youth baseball during his crusade to return Little League baseball to Charleston and his later tenure as president of the Charleston American Little League. Newspaper clippings cover the Cannon Street YMCA baseball team; Little League baseball in Africa; and segregation in recreation in Charleston and the American South; and the establishment of the Charleston American Little League in 1994. Materials also include requests for support and flyers by the Charleston American Little League; programs and statements depicting the impact of the Cannon Street YMCA Baseball League and its successor, the Charleston American Little League; and a photograph of Augustus Holt with his son, Lawrence Holt, and others.

6. Fred Stroble Papers: Fred Stroble, a native of Charleston, attended Archer Elementary and Burke High Schools before joining the United States Navy. Stroble went to various law enforcement schools and had joined the City Police Department in 1962 as a patrolman. Later, he worked as a detective with the vice squad. Stroble was named the first African American Deputy Sheriff for Charleston County in 1969. He was appointed Deputy United States Marshal in 1972. Stroble also served the United States District Court for 36 years.

By the time of his retirement in 2008, Stroble had served in law enforcement for 46 years and had served on special assignments in every state in the United States. Among his case load, Stroble was assigned to the Watergate trial and was one of four hundred United States Marshals sent to Boston during school desegregation.

Stroble received numerous awards, including the Carter G. Wilson Award for Outstanding Community Person by the Association for Study of African American Life and History, the Phillip Randolph Award for Outstanding Lawman, and several United States Attorney General Awards for Special Achievement.

Fred Stroble and his wife Barbara Stroble had three daughters.

The collection contains materials related to Fred Stroble's career in law enforcement. Includes newspaper clippings regarding appointments and various crimes cases, 1972; photocopies of correspondence regarding promotions and letters of recognition, 1962-1976; and photographs depicting Stroble in his uniform, as part of the City Police Department, and during an appointment ceremony.

7. Jerodene Ellis Papers: Jerodene Ellis was a 1945 graduate of Laing High School in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina. She moved to Philadelphia, where she lived for 37 years. There, she earned a business and public administration degree from Temple University and became employed as a personnel specialist for the City of Philadelphia. She later returned to Mount Pleasant.

The collection contains a Palmer Method handwriting book used by Jerodene Ellis in the sixth grade and Ellis' graduation diploma from Laing High School in 1945.

8. Kwadjo Campbell Campaign Ephemera: Larry Roy Campbell, Jr., more commonly known as Kwadjo Campbell, served as a Charleston City Councilman for District 4 for nearly eight years. Campbell, an African American, was an outspoken supporter for Charleston's East Side. A vocal critic of Charleston mayor Joe Riley, Campbell ran an unsuccessful bid for mayor against Riley in 2003.

In 2005, Campbell was indicted on campaign finance charges; he also faced separate marijuana possession charges and was arrested for failure to pay child support. His Councilman term ended in July 2005 after his indictment.

In early 2007, Campbell was sentenced to pay fines and restitution for two campaign finance violations and a marijuana possession charge, to which he had pleaded guilty, and was placed on probation. In June 2007, Campbell returned to Charleston to organize voter registration drives and assist the then-mayoral campaign of William Dudley Gregorie.

In February 2010, Kwadjo Campbell announced his intention to run for mayor of North Charleston in 2011.

The collection contains campaign stickers and flyers for Kwadjo Campbell, likely during his 2003 mayoral election campaign against Joe Riley.

9. Mosquito Beach Community: Mosquito Beach, an island and community located on Sol Legare Road in James Island, South Carolina was an important recreational site for African Americans during the early to mid-twentieth century when laws segregated beaches and other facilities.

The island began as an oyster factory until the 1930s, at which time community founders, Joe King Pin Chavis and Andrew Apple Jackson Wilder, Sr. set in motion the Mosquito Beach Community. It was renamed for its abundant mosquito population, and became home to several local seafood stands, restaurants, a boardwalk pavilion, bars and dance clubs.

In the 1980s and 90s, the area declined due to storms, hurricanes and changes in social economic conditions.

In 1990, William G. Wilder, member of the Mosquito Beach Association, Inc. tried to get the land listed in the National Register of Historic Places and the State Historic Preservation Office.

The collection includes of a history of the area by Joe Chavis and Andrew Jackson Wilder, Jr.; plotted surveys of Sol Legare Road; correspondence with the South Carolina Department of Archives and History; various photocopied newspaper articles concerning Mosquito Beach; and a group photograph on the boardwalk.

10. African American Firemen in Charleston: African American firemen have served in the Charleston Fire Department since 1882.

The collection includes photocopied photographs of uniformed firemen and clippings from News and Courier about Black fire fighters in the Charleston Fire Department. In a 1956 article, the News and Courier reported that Black firemen received the same privileges in pay, sick leave, and other benefits as did White firemen; however, fire stations remained segregated.

11. Thomas Miller Papers: Thomas Miller, an African American, attended Immaculate Conception School and graduated from Bishop England High School in Charleston, South Carolina in 1974. He later attended the University of South Carolina, and presumably was a member of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc.

The collection includes a memory book with messages and pop culture references to Thomas Miller from classmates and Charleston-area high school students, 1974; school portraits of female acquaintances, circa 1974; and newspaper clippings related to the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc.'s participation in intramural basketball at the University of South Carolina, 1977.

Acquisitions Information: Received from Ruth Miller, May 2005.

12. Irene and Mary White Papers: Contains correspondence of Mary and Irene White with African American soldiers, insurance policies, photographs, travel book, and memo book.

Acqusitions Information: Donated by Jack Thompson in 2009.

13. Edward N. Brown Papers: Edward N. Brown was born at Drayton Hall, South Carolina. In August 1943, Brown was inducted into the U.S. Navy where he worked as a second class cook and in 1945 he was honorably discharged from his service. In 1946, Brown became an ordained Baptist Minister in Charleston, South Carolina. His first position was at Jerusalem Baptist Church, he left there to pastor at Eastside Baptist church on Nassau Street in Charleston. Rev. Brown died on October 2, 1966.

Information on the East Side Baptist Church can be found here:

14. Mary Steiger: Mary Steiger worked as an Assistant at the Avery Institute under the direction of the American Missionary Association and when Mr. M.A. Holmes served as principal. Steiger was from Westfield, Massachusetts and may have made acquaintance of John Ashley there. The collection contains correspondence between Mary Steiger and John Ashley.

Acquisition Information: Donated by Mary Furman Bortz from Tampa, Florida.

15. Bazilio Gonzales: Contains the deed of conveyance of 24 Montagu Street in Charleston, South Carolina to Virginia Ferrette for $2,800 from Bazilio Gonzales. Virginia Ferrette was probably the daughter John M. Ferrette, who was a Caucasian man who fled to Charleston from Saint Domingue. She was a free person of color.

16. Sameera V. Thurmond: Sameera Thurmond has conducted genealogical research charting her biracial family ancestry to George Washington Thurmond, James Strom Thurmond's grandfather. James Strom Thurmond, was a United States Senator from South Carolina. Strom Thurmond was a strong advocate for racial segregation and ran for President of the United States in 1948 as a member of the segregationist States Rights Democratic Party. In 2003, it was revealed that he had fathered a daughter with his family's African-American maid, Carrie Butler, and paid for her college education. He never publically acknowledged his daughter, but his family did.

Additional information about Strom Thurmond can be found in the book, Strom: The Complicated Personal and Political Life of Strom Thurmond by Jack Bass and Marilyn Thompson.

17. Darlene Clark Hine's Course at the College of Charleston: In Fall 2007, African American history and African American women's history scholar Darlene Clark Hine taught a class at the College of Charleston and she encouraged her students to deposit their papers and research at the Avery Research Center. The collection contains the work done by some of these students.

18. Ambrose E. Gonzales: Ambrose Gonzales was born on a plantation in Colleton County, South Carolina in 1857 and his father was Ambrosio Jose Gonzales a Colonel in the Confederate Army, who fought in the Civil War. Gonzales and N.G. Gonzales, his brother, founded The State newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina. He did several works to bring the Gullah dialect to public awareness through publishing sketches of Gullah in the newspaper as well as through writings, such as The Black Border. Gonzales died in 1926.

19. Simmons Family: Alfred Simmons (married to Henrietta Gaillard) started a fishing company in 1876 at 31-33 Market St., and then his sons Edward, Theodore, and Charles took over. Edward Simmons (1876-1951) operated a store on East Bay Street. Later these two businesses consolidated to form Simmons Ocean Fish Co. The company sold turkeys, chicken, and seafood.

Edward Simmons' children became leaders in their own right: Edward Simmons, a Howard graduate and lawyer; Theodore R. Simmons, works with his father; Naomi S. Scott, a Haynes Institute and Atlanta School of Social Science graduate and secretary of a YWCA in St. Louis, MO.; Prince B. Simmons, a Hampton Institute graduate and soldier; Rev. William J. Simmons, a Lincoln University graduate and pastor in a Presbyterian church in Roanoke, VA.; Charles Simmons, a Sumner high school graduate and works with his father; and Reuben Simmons, a Lincoln University graduate and works for the Department of Agriculture in Washington, DC.

Edward Simmons was considered to be a business and community leader in Charleston.

Items in the collection include documents regarding Simmons Ocean Fish, Co., 1938-1949; family photographs; Edward Theodore Simmons and Edward Simmons, Diploma and Obituary, 1945 and 1951; and genealogical research.

20. Thelma Murray: Thelma Francis Murray-Pettigrew was born on September 30, 1923 to Rev. Harry M. Murray, Sr., and Orville Wright Murray. She attended St. Peter's Catholic School (kindergarten to 2nd grade), Immaculate Conception High School (4th-10th grades), Avery Institute High School (11th-12th), graduated in 1941, and graduated from Avery Normal Institute in 1942. She graduated with her B.A. in elementary education from South Carolina State College in 1951 and obtained a Masters in Early Childhood Education from the Teachers College of Columbia University in New York, NY in 1960.

Murray began her teaching career at Jennie Moore Elementary School in Mt. Pleasant, SC; she also taught at the Head Start, Ben Tillman Elementary School; Daniel Jenkins in North Charleston; and Simonton and Rhett elementary schools in Charleston County School District 20. She retired in 1976. Murray was active in community organizations such as St. Patrick's Women's Guild, the YWCA of Greater Charleston, National Council of Negro Women, South Carolina Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, and Charleston Democratic Women.

In 1988, she married William F. Pettigrew.

Items in the collection include Murray's professional journal log, 1951 and Charleston City Federation of Colored Women's Club Annual Memorial Tea Donation Envelope, 1970

21. Carolina Lowcountry and Atlantic World Program (CLAW): The Carolina Lowcountry and Atlantic World (CLAW) at the College of Charleston was established to promote scholarship on the Lowcountry, the Atlantic World, and the connections between the two. CLAW's mission is to strengthen the College's instructional program and to promote the public understanding of the region and its place in a broader international context by fostering research that illuminates the constant contact and cultural exchange among the various Atlantic cultures, societies, and ethnicities. The collection contains the 2007-2008 event schedule for Commemorating the Abolition of the Atlantic Slave Trade.

22. Jenkins Orphanage Institute: The Jenkins Orphanage was started in 1891 in Charleston, SC by Reverend Daniel Joseph Jenkins (1862-1937) to care for African American orphans of the city, who because of their race were not being taken in at area orphanages. Daniel Jenkins, born a slave and orphaned at a young age, was also the father of the classical composer Edmund Thornton Jenkins (1894-1926). Upon Daniel Jenkins' death, his wife, Eloise, succeeded as president of the orphanage until 1941, when Reverend Paul Daniels (d. 1961) took charge of the orphanage until 1961. The Orphan Aid Society, chartered in 1892 and organized from members of Reverend Daniel Jenkins and Paul Daniels' church, Fourth Tabernacle Baptist, was the governing board of the orphanage.

The orphanage was initially located in Jenkins' home at 660 King St. In 1893, Jenkins received permission from the city to use the abandoned building of the Old Marine Hospital at 20 Franklin St. to house the growing number of resident orphans, 536 by 1896. In 1937, the orphanage moved to a farm on the outskirts of the city. The orphanage, still in existence, is currently located at 3923 Azalea Drive, in North Charleston.

To raise money for its administration, the Jenkins Orphanage Band was started. The jazz band toured nationally and internationally, and was credited for the invention of the 1920s dance craze known as the Charleston. Famous Jenkins Orphanage Band members include William Cat Anderson, Jabbo Smith, and Freddie Green.

Items in this collection include correspondence and historical information.

23. Henry Fordham: William B. Yates, T.W. Howell, and William P. Lea are conveying land they purchased on Line St. for a burial ground for free persons of color to Nelson Richardson, Titus Gregory, Jacob Weston, Samuel Weston, James Johnston, Charles H. Holloway, and William Berry. Historical information about the land purchased by Yates, Howell, and Lea can be found in the article, The St. John's Burial Association and the Catholic Cemetery at Immaculate Conception, City of Charleston, South Carolina: What became of the Repose of the Dead? by Michael Trinkley and Debi Hacker, 1994.

24. Thomas Stoney: Thomas Porcher Stoney (1886-1987) was the Mayor of Charleston, SC, from 1923 to 1931 and vigorously embraced historic preservation as official civic policy. Stoney was active in politics throughout his life, working for the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower and participating in the South Carolinians for Independent Electors movement and efforts to block desegregation.

He married Beverly Means DuBose in 1915, and had three children: Randell Croft Stoney, Theodore DuBose Stoney, and Laurence O'Hear Stoney.

The collection contains an anonymous postcard written to Stoney inviting him and other South Carolina Democrats to see democracy in action.

25. William Lewis: Contains the original and a typed transcript of the slavery bill of sale that took place in the Sumter District of South Carolina in 1846. The bill denotes that Big Tom, Dinah, Harvey, Elias, and Ira were sold by William Lewis (who purchased John Durant's estate) to Franklin J. Moses for the sum of $1,795.

It is unclear whether the enslaved people were sold to Franklin J. Moses Jr. or Sr. However, both men were Republican Politicians in South Carolina. Franklin Moses, Sr. became the chief justice of the South Carolina Supreme Court in 1868 and Franklin Moses, Jr. was the 75th Governor of South Carolina.

26. Mosquito Fleet Association, Inc.: The Mosquito Fleet Association, Inc. was incorporated on December 1, 1988, by Melvin Middleton and William M. Lawrence. The association was created to promote independent fishing, to provide facilities for fishing, to preserve, reconstruct and maintain the history, tradition and heritage of the Mosquito Fleet. Their offices were at 1 Laurens St. in Charleston, SC.

The collection includes the association's by-laws, meeting minutes, report of corporation, and certificate of incorporation.

27. John Conroy: John Conroy (1926/1927-1981) was the Chief of Police in the City of Charleston for 13 years. He arrived in 1968 a little before the 1969 Hospital Worker's Strike began. Additionally, he was an ex-marine officer.

The collection contains a letter from John Conroy to Father William J. Joyce from Arlington, VA. Conroy states that he was sorry to miss the going away party for him and thanks him for his help during the 1969 Hospital Worker's Strike that occurred in Charleston.

28. Black Diaspora Project: The Black Diaspora Project had many aims including but not limited to creating a database of Black funeral homes and churches; and one that would chart the migration patterns of African Americans between the North (ex. New York City) and the South (ex. Charleston and New Orleans).

The collection contains a report entitled From Runaways to Migrants by Jean Pierre Le Glaunec (pages 1-2 are missing) and the funeral programs of individuals.

29. Charles F. Pequette, Sr.: Charles Pequette, an African American firefighter, served on the Charleston Fire Department beginning April 1, 1890 until he retired in 1931. The collection chronicles the fatal 1915 accident and subsequent reactions that killed CFD's Assistant Chief M. Morris, and injured Pequette and six others.

30. Clionian Debating Society: The Clionian Debating Society was formed in 1847 to pursue learning and mental improvement. The men debated set topics of the times, such as Western Civilization and government; and had orations on subjects such as education. The organization met monthly and members included Gabrial H. Barron, Enoch G. and Simeon W. Beaird, Henry Cardozo, Wm. H. Gaillard, J. Greene, P.A. Hyames, Augustus L. Horry, J. Mood, Jr., and Wm. O. Weston. The male membership was mostly from elite free Black families in Charleston. Each member paid dues and donated books to the society's library. The organization existed to at least September 1856.

More information can be found in Edward Drago's book Charleston's Avery Center: From Education and Civil Rights to Preserving the African-American Experience.

The collection contains photocopies of meeting minutes, 1847-1851 (except 10/1/1948-3/5/1949).

31. City of Charleston: Contains an official notice that states that neither Richard Holloway, Richard Fordham, nor Hannah Burnett (sp) have any judgments or decrees against them in the City Court of Charleston, SC.

32. Ella Pearson Mitchell and Henry Mitchell: Ella Pearson Mitchell was raised in Charleston, SC, attended Avery Institute, obtained her bachelor's and doctoral degree from Talladega College and her Masters in Arts from Union Theological Seminary and Columbia University. She graduated from Claremont School of Theology with her ministry degree. She has taught at schools in Los Angeles, New York City, Richmond, VA; and Atlanta. Henry H. Mitchell is a native of Columbus, Ohio he attended Lincoln University in Pennsylvania and obtained his doctorate of theology from Claremont School of Theology. Henry and Ella married on August 12, 1944 and since 1988, they have taught at the Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta. Both of them have written on Black religious experiences and co-write the Mitchell Update.

The collection contains biographical and professional papers, 1986-2004.

33. The Charlestonian Club: Contains speeches and 1931 Lincoln-Douglass Dinner Program.

34. Mae Purcell and Holloway Scrapbook: Mae Holloway Purcell (1891-1982) is the daughter of Mr. Henry and Mrs. Martha Holloway, but because of parents early deaths she was raised by her aunt and uncle-Mr. and Mrs. James Harrison Holloway. They lived in a house on Beaufain St. in Charleston, SC, which was built by her Great-Grandfather, Richard Holloway. Purcell graduated from Avery Institute in 1909 and then went on to attend Fisk University, where she obtained an A.B. in Science in 1914. She taught at various schools including Voorhees College in Denmark, S.C.; Burke Industrial School in Charleston, S.C; and Shaw School. In 1936, she began working at Dart Hall Branch Library in Charleston, SC and taking classes at the University of Wisconsin. In 1950, she graduated from North Carolina College, where she obtained her graduate degree in Library Science. When the branch librarian of Dart Hall Library, Mrs. Susan Dart Butler, retired; Purcell took over this position. She retired in 1964, but stayed active through civic, church, library and community work.

She married Dr. Herbert Eugene Purcell in 1935; who died in 1941, they had no children.

Historical Note

The Holloway scrapbook was created by James Harrison Holloway in the 1900s. He wanted to put into a scrapbook certain papers that his mother and grandmother had saved, such as Richard Holloway's citizenship papers, bills of sale, tickets from community events, and other material that document early Black life.

The collection contains biographical notes on Mae Purcell and material from Holloway Scrapbook, 1892-1963.

35. Randolph Kirkland: African Americans were willing and unwilling participants in the American Civil War from the beginning to the end. This survey was undertaken by the South Carolina Historical Society in an effort to identify soldiers who were born in South Carolina in order to compile a history for future generations. Furthermore, this was a preliminary effort to identify the facts and the scope of the research to undertake the endeavor.

Randolph Kirkland has written the following books on the Civil War: Broken Fortunes (1995), which contains the names and regiment of 18,666 men of South Carolina who died in the Civil War; and Steadfast to the Last (1995), which contains the names and regiment of South Carolina Parolees.

The collection contains a survey entitled South Carolina Designated Regiments in Federal Service 1862-1866 and Prince Rivers' U.S. Army Service Record, 1997 and 2005.

36. Gamble Family: The collection contains a family history publication that was compiled by Raimonda (Kirk) Martin in 1985, it documents family history to 1730. The Gamble family line originates in Williamsburg County of South Carolina with John Gamble, a White planter, who had four slaves. John Gamble died in 1819, but his descendants (White and Bi-racial) moved westward to Arkansas just before the Civil War. Most of the early Gamble family members were enslaved and after the Civil War they were farmers and/or cattlemen. One Black Gamble family member, Eli, was killed during the Howard County Riot of 1883.

37. Joi Mayo: Joi Mayo completed, A Beacon Light: Immaculate Conception School's Encouragement of Charleston's Black Middle and Upper Classes for fulfillment of a Masters of Arts degree in History from the Graduate College of the College of Charleston and The Citadel. An electronic copy of the thesis can be found via the ProQuest database.

Abstract This is a study of Immaculate Conception School, (ICS) a private African American Catholic institution in Charleston, South Carolina founded in 1908, with particular emphasis on the years of 1930-1940. Its purpose is to show how black Catholic education in the city was intertwined with issues of class and status in the black community, while illustrating the efforts of African Americans to improve educational opportunities. African American parents utilized Immaculate Conception's challenging and competitive curriculum to prepare students for post-secondary institutions and ensure that they received the skills to remain in or enter the black middle and upper classes. As a result of the encouragement of their parents, members of the Oblate Sisters of Providence, and community leaders, a large number of ICS students completed college and entered professional occupations. In order to determine the background of the students and their mindsets, I have examined a variety of diverse sources, including the US Manuscript Census of Population from the years of 1920 and 1930, the Beacon Light which served as the school's newspaper and yearbook, and other materials. I also conducted interviews with several alumni and faculty of ICS. This study illustrates how Immaculate Conception School allowed African American youth to escape Charleston's social and economic structures that suppressed the development of blacks.

The collection contains A Beacon Light Immaculate Conception Thesis Research Notes and Presentation, 2010-2011.

38. Mears Family: Frances Lavinia Robertson Kimber and her daughters started compiling family history information beginning in 1979. Through research the earliest member the family has located is George Mears, a White male, who married Martha Ward (1830-1902), an African American woman. They lived at 8 Inspection St. in Charleston, SC. Mears was a ship captain and also worked as a ship carpenter.

The family histories contained in this chart include the genealogy of the following branches: Harleston, Robertson, Mears, Poinsette, Brown, Lawson, Wright, Barron, DeVault, Jackson, Mickey, Stevens, Lee, Pinkard, Bishop, Greene, Mackey, and Kimber.

The collection contains the May 30, 2005, draft publication (vol. 1, no. 5) of the Mears Family History.

39. Edith Randall Hammond Papers: Edith Randall Hammond, was born on June 8, 1896, in Charleston, SC to Charles Hayes and Martha Randall. Hayes was of English, Spanish, and African descent, whose family arrived in South Carolina from Barbados. Randall had African and Native American ancestry. The family lived at 11 King St. and attended St. Mark's Episcopal Church in Charleston. Hammond attended the Avery Normal Institute and graduated in May 1914, at the school she developed skills in dress making among others. She worked as a secretary at Real Estate Broker Herman Rudolph's office. In 1916, Hammond left Charleston to work as a seamstress in a Gentlemen's Club in Philadelphia, PA. In 1918, she married Winston Purcell Hammond, who was a musician and worked at the Philadelphia Post Office. After her husband's death, she pursued her Doctor of Divinity and was ordained a minister in the Church of Religious Science. In 1939, she, Lillian Smith, Glayds Henderson, and Renetta Northfleet founded The Church of Divine Light in Philadelphia. In that same year, she opened a beauty shop, which later became a beauty school. In 1940, she graduated from nursing school and worked at Pennsylvania Hospital until December 1941; she left there and worked at a defense plant operated by the Marine Corps, where she made uniforms for the Marines. Afterwards, she came back to Philadelphia to pastor at her church.

Edith Randall Hammond died in 1982.

The collection contains Hammond's 1914 Avery Normal Institute graduation invitation, a brief biography, and eight photographs including photos of Hammond at various stages of her life, of husband, Winston Hammond, and of Robert Hammond, Sr., her son.

Acquisition Information: Donated by son, Robert Hammond, Sr.

40. Damon George Thomas and Damon Ireland Thomas: Damon Ireland Thomas was born on August 16, 1875 in Houma, Terrabonne Parish, LA. He was a stage performer and a theater manager. Throughout the 1900s, he managed the Lincoln Theater in Charleston, SC; the Bijou Theater in Tampa, FL; and one in Atlanta, GA. Additionally, he wrote for the Chicago Defender during the 1920s, where he wrote about hosting individuals like Oscar Micheaux, and E.D. Lee. In the Defender he wrote on motion picture news and what was happening at various Black theaters in the South and the North. The Lincoln Theater served the African American population in the area and was successful. He donated land for an African American fire station and for a school.

Damon George Thomas was born in 1918 in New Orleans, LA. He obtained his Bachelor of Laws degree from South Carolina State College in 1966 and served as an Attorney for the SC District Courts.

The collection contains several newspaper articles written by Damon Ireland Thomas for the Chicago Defender, correspondence, diplomas, and famuly genealogy.

41. Gary Towles: Gary Towles donated Plantation Echoes (A Three Act All Negro Dramatic Musical Production) program and copied sheets of the synopsis. The April 16th, 1936 play was held at the Hibernian Hall in Charleston, SC and was staged and produced by Rosa Warren Wilson.

42. Arthur Clement: Arthur John Howard Clement, Jr., (1908-1986) was an African-American businessman, civic leader, and political activist. He attended the Avery Normal Institute in Charleston, SC and went to Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, N.C., where he earned his high school diploma in 1926 and his baccalaureate in 1930. He worked at North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company in Durham, NC, Savannah, GA, and in Charleston, SC. His career with North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company ended in 1967, when he became Director of Admissions and Career Counseling at Voorhees College in Denmark, SC.

Clement was active in the South Carolina Progressive Democratic Party and in 1950, he became the first African American in South Carolina to run for Congressional office as a Democrat. In later years he became involved in the Republican Party.

His papers are held at the University of South Carolina's Caroliniana Library.

The collection contains a card from E.M. Parker thanking him for a letter he sent to her and wishes him the best in the new year.

43. McFall Family: Thomas McFall was born on November 27, 1908 to Dr. John Allen and Mrs. Josephine E. Carr McFall in Charleston, SC. He attended Avery Institute and Lincoln University and earned his medical degree from the University of Michigan's School of Medicine. McFall completed his residency at Homer G. Phillips in St. Louis, MO, returned to Charleston to practice, and served in the U.S. Army Medical Corps during WWII. McFall was a president of the Palmetto Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical Association; a member of the Charleston Medical Association and of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. He was one of the leaders behind establishing the McClennan-Banks Memorial Hospital in Charleston.

McFall died on June 9, 1969 at McClennan Banks Hospital. He was married to Blanche S. McFall and they had three sons-T.C. McFall Jr., Frank McFall, and Bernard McFall.

Acquistion Information: Items in the collection were donated by Thomas Carr McFall, Jr. and Konrad A. Mark. There were three separate acqusitions, the 1985 acqusition of the diplomas; a 1990 acqusition of Paul McFall's I.D. and dues book, Joesph Smith's Brass Membership Card, and the Freemason's Monitor; and a 1993 acqusition of a 1940s Thomas McFall photo in his U.S. Marine uniform.

44. Fraser Family Papers and Robert Howard: James Wilbur Fraser (1870-1923) was an apprentice carpenter who worked in Central America. There is dispute about when and where he was born. Robert H. Fraser, James' brother, worked at Spiegal's Music Store in Charleston, SC, as a piano tuner. In 1897, James married Catherine Eddena Gourdin (1877-1954). They had eleven children (Anna G., Wilbur, James Wilbur, George Wesley, Catherine Elizabeth, Marguerite A., Caroline E. (Carrie), Emily Edna, Mary Jeanette, Helen V., Ruth L.). The Fraser children attended the Avery Institute, Immaculate Conception, and Burke High School based on preference. Most of the children went on to pursue higher education.

Fraser was able to purchase 48 lots in the northern Charleston area that boarded the following streets Sumter, President, Fishburne, and Johnsons Court. Three lots were sold to individuals and one was given to church trustee, George Brown. The area became to be known as Fraser Field. In 1924, Fraser Auto Repair shop was opened on 73 Cannon St., the shop served both White and Black Charlestionians. It was run by James Fraser, Jr., until 1941/42, when he began teaching.

As a result of taxes owed, Fraser Field was put up for auction and was bought by the City of Charleston, and was later deeded to the School district to build Burke High School.

Robert H. Howard owned slaves from 1833-1864, the number he owned is uncertain, but information from the family bible he notes the names of some of the women and their children's names.

The collection includes Fraser Family history, Petition to Prove Will, Correspondence, and James Fraser, Jr. College Transcript; Fraser Auto Repair Business History and Daybook Book; and Robert H. Howard's Family Bible.

45. Various African American Church Deeds and Documents: Churches in this series are Ebenezer African Methodist Episcopal Church, Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Francis Brown African Methodist Episcopal Church, Mt. Carmel Methodist Protestant Church, New Hope Baptist Church, St Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church, Shiloh African Methodist Episcopal Church; and an individual collection of Joseph and Carrie James, who were leaders in the African Methodist Episcopal Church.

Items in this collection relate to church mortages, deeds of real estate, court documents in relation to title ownerships, and Joseph and Carrie James Certificates of involvement in the African Methodist Episcopal Church.

46. Unidentified Items: Are individual items that do not belong to a particular collection. Examples of items include Williamsburg County Principal's or Teacher's Report for Negro Schools, 1930-1931; a leaflet/report sent by the Worker's Defense League regarding Sheriff Walter Clark in Fort Lauderdale, F.L; and an Abstract of Title for 11 Henrietta St.

47. Alexander Gourdine: collection consists of newspaper clippings from Charleston papers, an issue of the Parvenue, the Burke High School newspaper and the book Tuskegee to Voorhees by Dr. J.F.B. Coleman, 1922. These items were collected by Alexander Gourdine, the father of donor Barbara Clark. Gourdine is the son of Amelia Noisette Gourdine. Clark donated the items in April 2012.


  • Creation: 1786-2007, undated

Access Restrictions

No restrictions.

Copyright Notice

The nature of the Avery Research Center's archival holdings means that copyright or other information about restrictions may be difficult or even impossible to determine despite reasonable efforts. The Avery Research Center claims only physical ownership of most archival materials.

The materials from our collections are made available for use in research, teaching, and private study, pursuant to U.S. copyright law. The user must assume full responsibility for any use of the materials, including but not limited to, infringement of copyright and publication rights of reproduced materials. Any materials used for academic research or otherwise should be fully credited with the source.

Biographical Note

Each collection's biographical and historical information can be located in the collection overview section of the finding aid.


2.5 linear feet (6 archival boxes)

Language of Materials



This collection consists of various small collections held at the Avery Research Center for African American History and Culture. The collection consists of forty-seven small collections that were donated by families, individuals, organizations, and unidentified individuals. Each collection has its own arrangement and description. Topics included in this collection are African American education and schools, African American fire fighters, African American businesspeople, African American social life, customs, and organizations, family histories, land title, deeds of real estate for individuals and African American churches, the 1969 Hospital Worker's Strike, African American nurses, African American religous organizations, newspaper clippings, photographs, funeral programs, marriage licenses, and other records that document African American life in Charleston, South Carolina and in the South in general.

Collection Arrangement

1. Hicks and Steele Family Papers, 1882-1916

2. Shaw School, 1876-1990

3. Fredricka Jenkins-Andrews Papers, 1972-1983

4. Francis Frank Sturken, 1951-1999

5. Augustus Holt Collection on Charleston Little League, 1955-1995

6. Fred Stroble Papers, 1962-1976

7. Jerodene Ellis Papers, 1939-1945

8. Kwadjo Campbell Campaign Ephemera, circa 1998-2004

9. Mosquito Beach Community, 1953-1990

10. African American Firemen in Charleston, circa 1910s-1984

11. Thomas Miller Papers, 1974-1977

12. Irene and Mary White Papers, 1926-1952, and undated

13. Edward N. Brown Papers, 1945-1990, and undated

14. Mary Steiger, 1886-1989

15. Bazilio Gonzales, 1857

16. Sameera V. Thurmond, 1991

17. Darlene Clark Hine's Course at the College of Charleston, 1981-2007

18. Ambrose E. Gonzales, 1913-1928, and undated

19. Simmons Family, 1938-2002, and undated

20. Thelma Murray, 1951 and 1970

21. Carolina Lowcountry and Atlantic World Program (CLAW), 2007-2008

22. Jenkins Orphanage Institute, 1932 and undated

23. Henry Fordham, 1854

24. Thomas Stoney, 1936

25. William Lewis, 1846

26. Mosquito Fleet Association, Inc., 1988-1991, and undated

27. John Conroy, 1971

28. Black Diaspora Project, 1999-2001, and undated

29. Charles F. Pequette, Sr., 1907-1935, and undated

30. Clionian Debating Society, 1847-1851

31. City of Charleston, 1849

32. Ella Pearson Mitchell and Henry Mitchell, 1986-2004

33. The Charlestonian Club, 1927-1931, and undated

34. Mae Purcell and Holloway Scrapbook, 1892-1963

35. Randolph Kirkland, 1997 and 2005

36. Gamble Family, 1985

37. Joi Mayo, 2010-2011

38. Mears Family, 2005

39. Edith Randall Hammond Papers, 1914-1975, and undated

40. Damon George Thomas and Damon Ireland Thomas, 1920-2009

41. Gary Towles, 1936

42. Arthur Clement, 1973

43. McFall Family, 1901-1985, and undated

44. Fraser Family Papers and Robert Howard, 1809-1948, 2001, and undated

45. Various African American Church Deeds and Documents, 1911-1960, and undated

45.1 Ebenezer African Methodist Episcopal Church, 1929 and 1930

45.2 Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, 1927 and 1935

45.3 Francis Brown African Methodist Episcopal Church, 1923 and 1927

45.4 Mt. Carmel Methodist Protestant Church, 1935 and 1945

45.5 New Hope Baptist Church, 1911, and 1930-1934

45.6 St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church, 1923

45.7 Shiloh African Methodist Episcopal Church, 1935-1939

45.8 Joseph and Carrie James, 1947-1960

46. Unidentified Items, 1786-1945, and undated

47. Alexander Gourdine, 1891-1946

Related Material

These collections below can provide more context to some of material within the various collections

1. Brown Fellowship Society (AMN 1005)

2. Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMN 1035)

3. International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftsmen (AMN 1052)

4. McClennan-Banks Memorial Hospital (AMN 1058)

5. Holloway Family-Scrapbook (AMN 1065)

Processing Information

Processed by Aaisha Haykal, 04/2012

Encoded by Aaisha Haykal, 04/2012

Inventory of the Various Collections, 1786 - 2007, and undated AMN 9000
Finding aid prepared by Processed by: Haykal, Aaisha; machine-readable finding aid created by: Haykal, Aaisha
Description rules
Language of description
Script of description
Language of description note
Description is in English

Repository Details

Part of the Avery Research Center for African American History and Culture Repository

125 Bull Street
Charleston South Carolina 29424 United States